Innovative Educational Programs at San Jose State University

in the late 1960s/early 1970s


This page at montecapanno1970.com provides a forum through which to reflect about the educational value of programs that closely were related to the Spring 1970 experiment at Monte Capanno: the Tutorials in Letters and Sciences Program under whose auspices the experiment at Monte Capanno (Perugia, Italy) took place; and the New College of San Jose State, in which several of the Monte Capanno residents were enrolled, and which provided additional units of credit awarded to many of the Tutorials students at Monte Capanno.

SJS former faculty, New College and Tutorials students, and others interested in educational innovation may have their comments included here by posting them to our message board, or by emailing them to lindabowen2@yahoo.com .

Below are separate sections:

- A synopsis of what the New College of San Jose State was about

- A similar synopsis about the Tutorials in Letters and Sciences Program of San Jose State

- Letters and commentaries include ones 

  • from former professors in these programs, 
  • administrators at SJS, 
  • and students... including:
    •  an alternative memory of how the experiment at Monte Capanno got off the ground in the first place by (Tutorials student) Adrienne DeAngelis; 
    • a defense of the New College approach by the webmasters of Monte Capanno 1970; 
    • and further comments by others on what experimental education meant to them.


 
 

Innovative Educational Programs at San Jose State University:

the Tutorials in Letters and Sciences Program

and the New College


Former students at San Jose State seem to have the impression that Tutorials and New College were wholly separate experiments.  In terms of their faculty at any moment this was, of course, true.  But their origins and personnel overlapped, as is explained below.  Moreover, at Monte Capanno in 1970, the educational approach used veered sharply away from the Tutorials model toward that of New College.  Thus, to understand Monte Capanno 1970 one needs to look at the concepts involved in both of these innovative programs.

The Tutorials Program was an intensive study program geared toward small seminars in which lower division students read the classics, discussed their meaning in groups, and wrote papers under the supervision of a single professor in a 12 semester hour block.  The program was four semesters long, and the focus and tutor shifted each semester, with one semester being devoted to a primary focus on Natural Sciences, one on Social Sciences, one on Humanities, and one on the Arts.  Cross-disciplinary conversations were encouraged.  Courses and course content were designed by the faculty, and extensive readings were primarily of original great thinkers (e.g., Darwin; Hobbes) rather than college texts.  By completing the Tutorials Program, all university wide general education requirements (except Physical Education) were completed.  Admission to the program was selective and by invitation.  The Program sharply differed from traditional general education, and courses were evaluated on a Pass/Fail basis.  Many attempts were made to establish a learning community by housing substantial numbers of the students together in Allen Hall, by hosting group retreats, and by sponsoring study abroad experiments such as the one this website commemorates.  Cultural activities also were frequently organized by the program, and by the students on their own initiative.

Most residents at Monte Capanno in 1970 were full time students in this program, and the Tutorials Program hired Prof. Zack as chief tutor for the students while in Italy.


The New College also was an intensive study program geared toward small seminars in which students read books, wrote, engaged in the expressive arts, took retreats together, and explored important themes of modern life.  Unlike the focus on the Classics in Tutorials, New College seminars were often contemporary, were narrower, and were less traditional in their focus.  Frequently, whole courses would explore a single writer (e.g., Kerouac) or single historic phenomenon (e.g., Spanish Civil War).  Student initiated topics often were the foundation for credit bearing seminars, with faculty mentors participating as learners alongside the undergraduates.  Independent studies where small numbers or even one student worked with a professor on a particular area of the faculty member's, or student's, interest formed another large element of the New College experiment.  As was the case with Tutorials, admission to the program was by application and by invitation.  Students seem to have had the impression that New College was less selective in its admissions criteria than was Tutorials, but we know of no empirical evidence to support that view.  Evaluation of enrollments in New College courses was on either a Pass/Fail or a letter grade basis, at the student's choice.  Unlike the two year long Tutorials program which did not lead to the granting of degrees, New College was a four year program leading to the B.A. degree from San Jose State.  Like Tutorials, the first two years of New College sharply differed from traditional American undergraduate general education; unlike Tutorials, New College relied on a changing range of experiences in the arts, sciences, social sciences, and humanities to compose General Education.   New College also made strong attempts to foster a community by housing many of the students together in Allen Hall, and by hosting group retreats.

The website "Monte Capanno 1970" originally was conceived as a reunion and critical examination of that one Tutorials group, not as a tool to assess the entirety of the Tutorials model of education, or the totality of the New College experiment.  However, in the years Monte Capanno 1970 has existed as a website interest has broadened.  As Mervyn Cadwallader has reminded us, the Tutorials experiment was one of the original attempts to construct "Learning Communities," a movement still with momentum among innovative thinkers in higher education.  

We are pleased to provide here a forum for thinking about all the issues raised by these educational experiments, and by the quest for more meaningful education in general.  These are among the views we have received from contributors to this website:
 

Prof. Scott Rice wrote to Adrienne: "I do not know if Dr. Burns responded to your message.  Here is the message he [Dr. Hobart Burns, former Provost of San Jose State] sent me.
"I remember Mervin Cadwallader, Bob Gordon, Marian Richards,  Fanny Rinn, Gene Bernardini, and Jose Carrasco well.  Fanny has died; I do not know about the others, except for Gordon, who lives in New Hampshire somewhere (Benny McCreath would know where); Marian Richards, who lives in San Francisco (Benton White could look her up in the EFA list); Carrasco is, I think, still on the faculty or in the area.

"The Tutorials fell apart, probably due to two things:  dissention among the faculty and its very high cost.  When it was dying Cadwallader, Hal DeBey, Jack Pierce, Fanny Rinn and I started the New College.  It, too, died a victim of lack of academic standards and too much "do your own thing" along with the loss of DeBey as Provost of New College.

"Any one of the people mentioned might help your correspondent.  To find them now is another thing; the best bet might be the Emeritus Faculty Association, via Benton White (jbentonwhite@earthlink.net)."
 

Prof. Bill McCormack, former Professor in the New College of San Jose State, in May 2001 wrote to us saying:
"Dear Linda,

Paul Boneberg forwarded the material that Adrienne remembered about the tutorial and New College period. I regretted that no one ever wanted to work up these experiments and publish the results. I remember in New College several people seemed mildly interested. I brought the idea up with Fanny Rinn . I said I would write up one chapter but I couldn't write up the whole thing. Each person should write his view to get a balanced picture. No one responded. When I said each person  I meant more than faculty. It should have been the work of the students not the faculty. After all who is best judge of the effects of the experiment?

I was surprised that Hobart Burns said  New College died for lack of academic standards to too much "do your own thing." From my view point it was his decision to hire Larry Chenoweth to replace Hal de Bey that caused the college to fold. Larry was called the " hatchetman" by some one. I saw him as merely conveying a message from Hobart Burns. Unfortunately Hal was nervous about letting Dr. Burns know all that was going on. I suggested we send over Carmen Hermosillo and the fellow who played the cello and a poet or two over to entertain Dr. Burns. I think he would have thought better of us . He was furious over Jeannie Friedman's writing on university stationary about her views of the Arab-Israeli fracas.  One time when my space was downstairs he came by. I was talking to an angry Chicano student. He jumped up and made loud and vigorous complaints to Dr. Burns. I do not think that pleased  Dr. Burns. Dr. Burns for some reason seemed to see us a being a college that would turn out leaders of the nation sort of a new Harvard. He spoke of our carrying on the tradition of the Quadrivium and the trivium. I do not know if Hal was right in keeping him uninformed about the work we were doing. We had people who were interested in traditional subjects. I had one fellow from Chemistry making a study of James Joyce's Ulysses (sp?). Carmen was a harpsichordist. These would have countered some of the political stuff that upset Dr. Burns.

"But I think the idea that students were people and adults and should have some say so in the direction of their education has never been popular in academia. It is assumed they are children and the adults know best. I see this as a left over of the origins of education, which was in the hands of the Priests who handed on the word of God. Well, most of the knowledge I have is not the sort that I think descended from such a lofty source. It is open to criticism by students from the very beginning. I was more interested in keeping people interested in what they were doing and perhaps coming up with new ideas, rather than just stuffing them with material. That approach stifles curiosity and that is death to learning. (emphasis added by the webmasters)

"I was much interested in the missing material about what happened in Italy. I was not part of the tutorial program. But I gathered something rather upsetting had happened. The tutorial students never told me what was the issue. It may have been several different things. The usual problems of any group who gets involved in learning do tend to crop up. Who is sleeping with whom, who is angry etc. Academia has tried to eliminate this problem but even there we remain human and these issues come up.

"It is getting late to do a book, but I am still willing to add my bit. But I am 81 years old so I don't have forever.

"Good to see some ex student is interested in the topic. Jack Douglas as the multimedia guy and Cindy Margolin are responsible for the records of New College. They may know what happened to the material on the Tutorial program.

"Great to hear from all of you."

BillMcCormack

BillM29062@AOL.com


Mervyn Cadwallader, one of the two founders of the Tutorials in Letters and Sciences Program at San Jose State, wrote us in December 2002.  (The other founder, John Sperling, educator and philanthropist, now heads the Apollo Group and founded the University of Phoenix, the leading distance learning university for adults in the United States.)  Cadwallader's account helps us to understand the relationship between Tutorials and subsequent "Learning Communities" created at Evergreen State (in Washington state) and other institutions: (emphasis added by the webmasters)

"Here is a short account of the 32 years from the day I left Tutorials and San Jose State for further adventures in doing battle with the educational establishment.

"I left San Jose at the invitation of Harris Wofford who had been given the chance to create a new experimental college at Old Westbury in the State University of New York system. During the year at Old Westbury I had visitors from the Tutorials program. Janet Holgerson (Holgie) came by while touring with the Disney road show. Four Tutorials students came by on their way to Italy. I remember Darrell Jones, Georgia Tanagoshi and am struggling to remember the names of two others. 

"Toward the end of my first year at Old Westbury, while running a tutorials-like program with Bob Sluss, I was asked to be one of the founding deans of a college that was still on the drawing boards. The college was to be Evergreen and I grabbed the chance to be creative. 

"Evergreen was to be the Tutorial dream come true. We started with a hole in the ground and admitted 1000 students after the planning year. All started in tutorials-style programs that were called coordinated studies programs. I brought Bob Sluss, Richard Brian and Richard Alexander to Evergreen from Tutorials to make sure that we kept the faith. During that first year Holgie came by Evergreen (with Disney), Mary Smith dropped in (I donít think she was riding a motorcycle), and I reconnected with Dee Dee at the San Jose Student Union. 

"From Evergreen I went to the University of Wisconsin-Platteville in 1976 as Vice Chancellor. It was while in Wisconsin that I helped gather together the aged graduates of Alexander Meiklejohnís Experimental College, organized and led the Meiklejohn Foundation, and with Barbara Smith and Patrick Hill at Evergreen, helped launch the 'learning communities' movement.

"In 1984 I became the President of Western New Mexico University and got fired (forced to resign) at the end of my first year. Part of my difficulty with the board of the university had something to do with my firing two basketball coaches and speaking at a memorial service for Juan Chacone who had played the lead in Leo Bibermanís black-listed movie, Salt of the Earth.

"In 1988 I became Vice President of the Union Institute in Cincinnati, a member of the graduate faculty, and then Acting President in 1999. The Union represented a huge switch for me from my twenty years of trying to reform and revolutionize undergraduate education. My new adventures, since 1986, were to be in adult education and especially adult graduate education. The Union Institute was an innovative consortium that fathered the University Without Walls movement in the USA, starting about the same time that Evergreen did. I had a lot of opportunity to be creative, as the Union became the best nontraditional adult doctoral university in the country. Guess what, the new president, who arrived two years ago, fired me!

"And that brings me to my new life and probably the closing chapter of my many attempts, since Tutorials, to yank the chain of the educational establishment. Now, I call myself a consultant and I have one client, the University of Phoenix, the largest private university in the USA and totally dedicated to the education of working adults. That, in a curious way, brings me full circle to an evening in San Jose. I had met Alexander Meiklejohn at Thanksgiving in the home of Joe Tussman and my cousin Lorie. It was the first I had ever heard of the Experimental College but I knew I wanted one, so one evening during the winter of 1965, John Sperling and I wrote a four page proposal to create Tutorials in Letters and Science.

"From San Jose State I went to Olympia to create Evergreen. From San Jose State John went to Phoenix to create the University of Phoenix. Now I am helping design and launch a really innovative School of Graduate Studies for adults at Johnís university.

"This past spring I was blessed with a chance to reconnect with a small group of Tutorials graduates at a reunion at the Crows Nest in Santa Cruz. This was an unusually moving experience for me because in my heart of heart I always saw the Tutorials students as fellow adventurers, as members of a small band willing to risk two years of their lives on an uncertain quest.

"You have no idea of how thankful I was to find them, and now to find you. And I suspect that you may be unaware of how important a role all of you who were a part of the Tutorials experiment are now playing in the ongoing effort to transform higher education.

"Tutorials was the foundation for the Learning Communities Movement that started at and still gets much of its inspiration from Evergreen. Barbara Smith is writing a soon to be published history of the Movement and she starts out with the story of Meiklejohnís experimental College at Madison and our Tutorials at San Jose State. Barbara tells me that there are over learning community experiments on around 800 campuses. Tutorials lives on!

"I am ready for the next reunion and I will do my best to bring along some of those who preceded you in the program.

"With great affection, 

Mervyn" (Cadwallader) who can be reached at: mcadwallader@fuse.net 


An Alternative Account of the Origins of Monte Capanno 1970 by Adrienne DeAngelis (acd@guppy.pond.net )

Adrienne DeAngelis, a student in the Tutorials Program at San Jose State in the late 1960s who did not participate in the Experiment at Monte Capanno, contacted the Monte Capanno 1970 project early in 2001.  In several letters below, Adrienne introduces a new narrative account of the origins of the Experiment at Monte Capanno, and tenders additional views of David Zack.  In a subsequent letter to us, she traces the faculty leadership that created the Tutorials Program and the New College of San Jose State, an intellectual experiment worthy of sustained analysis in its own right.

 

February 24, 2001: "What an amazing thing to find this Web site. Now I have material for that novel I'm going to write! Actually, reading this is not unlike reading Dennis Hopper's claims to have been a Beatnik and sooooo tight with Kerouac, etc. Kind of memory management among the survivors with modems. Ok--

"David Zack didn't think up the idea of taking off for a semester, I did. There had been an independent study type of trip from SJSU a few years before to Riekja (sp?) in Yugoslavia, which ended, as I remember hearing, with all students from SJSU being banned from Yugo. Something about a bee-bee gun and policemen. Anyway, I suggested, as I was dying to get out of San Jose, that we in Tutorials put together a trip to some nicer place, like Italy (country of my dreams), luring along a token professor. Before I knew it, smartie pants Zack had manuevered his way in. He was a new prof in the program who was admired by some of the other profs because he had a tangential relationship to the dregs of the beat crowd in SF ("the City"; SJ was nowheresville), and so was thought to be cooler than they were. He claimed, as some might recall, to have access to a villa in central Italy (which turned out to be an unfinished farmhouse). I pulled out at this moment, for two reasons: I wasn't about to move to the back of beyond when all of Italy was calling me, and then, and this was the most decisive moment, I remember coming upon Zack stretched out on the lawn in front of Building R in full tweeds, smoking a pipe. It hit me that he was an extremely strange person, and that he was not trustworthy. I didn't want to trust my safety to him, and so bye-bye. I seem to recall that one of the group approached me after the long dark nightmare was over and said, "YOU WERE SO RIGHT."

"Ok--more stuff: Where is mention of Linda Faulkner and Mary Zuccaro? I seem to remember hearing (letters from her describing her sufferings were one of our grim entertainments in the seminars) that she was the Mom of the group: cooking, rallying the troops, urging them not to commit mayhem. Linda as you remember had long naturally blonde hair and drove everyone crazy with her ceaseless good nature. I do remember Mary Z. telling me that one day she went off on a walk with Linda F. and Linda's giggling so unhinged her that she left her and to walk back home alone. On the way, ... she became convinced that, driven mad by Linda's cackling, she had strangled her and left her body in the road. She burst into the farmhouse, she told me, screaming "I just killed Linda!" Linda, as you know, survived the trip. A few years later she married a guy named Les Silver and I bet a panino of gorgonzola and mortadella that they are still in San Jose. I'm sure that Mary is also wed but I don't know who to. I could go on. Tell me if you want more of this.

"As to David Zack, he is dead. He died (take your choice) of the effects of gangrene poisoning after a clumsy jailhouse amputation of his leg, which was infected with gangrene, in Mexico, where he had fled to avoid the FBI. Or, he died in either N. Mexico or Arizona from the effects of diabetes after one of both of his legs had been amputated. Just search the Web under Neoism. Of course both stories could be false. We back home in the pink building were told that Mary's (and presumably other) letters so alarmed the profs at SJSU that Zack's last check was diverted to the group so that you could stop digging for potatoes in the snow and buy real food (there was also quite a bit of worry along the lines of "what if this gets out to the parents and the press??"). We were also told that towards the end of the semester Zack, that idiot Maija and their friends climbed into the van and took off without even a good-bye. Zack was fired and apparently did not return to the US, or at least not right away. I believe that he heard of ... [an] offer to invite him to his own necktie party. Zack spent some years at the University of Satskatchewan at Regina, where, I am told, there are warnings every morning about how long you could survive outside in the ever-present snow without freezing to death ("Death will occur after 10 minutes...").  I hope that makes you all feel better.


February 25, 2001:  "More stuff:  I believe Mark Cohen became a lawyer, so you could try those sources but with such a common name... As to Mary Zuccaro: Have you tried contacting her high school?  I believe that she attended one of the schools in the Campbell Union School District in San Jose.  Of course all they'd probably have would be her parents' address, and in the real estate frenzies of the past 20 years or so the family manse has doubtless been sold to finance retirement to someplace nice and safe, like Oregon (see below)  Another thing about Mary: she was so crazy about Steve Arnerich that I bet that if you could find him you could find her. If you do find her, get her to  send you a copy of the hilarious photo of her and the fidanzato her Italian relatives had picked out for her.  However, both Mary and Mark were actually rather conservative folks, despite their conduct in Italy, and I bet they'd just as soon forget those months of misspent youth.

"... Our entire age is so much more conservative, and hypocritical (sorry I teach undergrads and so can no longer spell) to boot... and not everyone has tenure.  I would in fact suggest that you re-view the site with those concepts in mind.

"I searched the net for some of the profs--big surprise, they're no longer listed on the SJSU site!  I wrote to Scott Rice in the English Dept (of the Bulwer Lytton contest fame) to see if he knows of anyone; he's been there for ages so he must at least know of some of them.  I do know that Fanny Rinn died about three years ago.  I also wrote to Mervyn Cadwallader, who ... is still listed as teaching at a place called Union International University... .

"So, I didn't go on your trip but next year I went with a bunch of people from the New College program, and we really had a great time.  We travelled for 2 weeks independently and then met for our seminars.  We all had Eurailpasses and stayed in hostels; I think some folks camped when they could.  Our leaders were Paul Potter and his wife, whose name was Marysomething.  They had two little kids and a van. Totally by accident we came up with a great travel/education plan because after about 2 weeks of travel we were always close to sick of each other and then it was time to meet with the rest of the group and hanging out with others the tensions would evaporate.  In Spain we found a huge tourist hotel in Valencia (I think); in the off-season it was dirt cheap and filled with all kinds of what by that point seemed to be luxuries: hot water, clean sheets and towels.  The only thing I regret is not staying for the second semester, when those who remained ended up spending almost the whole time on an island in Greece.  However, by that time I was hooked on travel, and especially Italy.  I ended up going on the Cal State Program to Florence, and then, after several years of working at pretty wretched jobs, I got a fellowship to go back to Florence to attend a US graduate program in art and art history, now sadly closed.  Truly a glutton for art historical punishment I went on the Courtauld Institute of Art and earned another MA (Brits thought that non-Brit institutions of higher ed. were worthless) and tried to go on there to the PhD but I was out of money and my prof never paid the slightest attention to me.  So, back to the US, a few more years of wretched jobs and then on to Rutgers University where I managed to finish the PhD before becoming totally sick of education in general and too aged to keep up with the roots.  Specialization: Italian Renaissance (you had to ask?)  So now I teach here and there.  Currently I'm in Eugene OR, popularly known as hippie paradise.  It does seem in many aspects remarkably like San Jose circa 1968, but there are many different types of populations here, from tree-huggers to rednecks to equestrians to Ivy League wannbes. The only thing they are united on is how much they hate Californians  (also that traitor Nader), whose inevitable mass arrival  they await with fuming certitude.  Ok: questions: When did Sandy and Cathy White become Sandee and Cathee? Have you tried contacting SJSU about who is currently the guardian of  the records of Tutorials?  It would be a laff riot to find out what was the official version of the trip to Italy. Linda, weren't you actually in the Humanities Program, you know, the HARD program?  Does Mark Fissel really look like that these days?  Please tell me that here is a pony tail hiding there somewhere.  Please tell me that he is a lot more cheerful than he looks."

Adrienne



Webmasters' comments on Provost Hobart Burns' and DeAngelis' comments, and on New College/Tutorials in General:
Linda (Green) Bowen was a student in the New College, not the Humanities Program; and a resident at Monte Capanno in 1970.  According to the letters here from Hobart Burns (former Provost of San Jose State University), New College was characterized as having a "lack of academic standards;" and from DeAngelis, New College is characterized as not "hard."  We completely disagree.  In March 2001, Linda stated: "New College allowed me to question what we were reading, and to stop simply being 'schooled.'  I had already had two years of 'normal' college education at L.A. Valley College, where challenging teachers taught larger groups, principally by lecture methods.  The New College of San Jose State was so much more stimulating.  It used a seminar approach to the classroom, and these seminars were conducted with genuine respect among students and professors.  Often seminar topics were student initiated.  This did not produce loose standards.  It created an environment in which I could develop critical thinking skills, self confidence, and experience public speaking.  In my career as a teacher, these have been extremely beneficial."  Linda credits New College for substantially contributing to her ability as an educator to adapt curriculum to the challenging needs of diverse populations.  Since graduating from San Jose State she has been a public high school Special Education teacher of learning disabled students for nearly twenty years.  In the later 1970s and early 1980s, and prior to specializing in Special Education, she was a teacher of English as a Second Language to refugees from Indochina and elsewhere, in Columbia, Missouri.  Her learning about meeting special needs of students first was applied at New College through experiential education coursework, one of which was a practicum at the Zonta School for autistic children in San Jose.  After graduating from New College and San Jose State in 1971, she continued preparation for a career as a teacher in the fifth year state credentialing process at San Jose State's School of Education, where she completed their Individualized Education Program.  Teacher education was the original purpose of San Jose State at its founding as a state normal school in the 1860s; teacher education clearly was an integral product of the New College experiment of the 1960s and 1970s.

Gordon Bowen concurred and expanded: "In doing a major in the New College, I was able to focus much more deeply on social subjects than was possible in my lecture oriented political science classes in the regular department of Political Science at San Jose State, in which I also majored.   The seminar process in New College created excitement and demanded students behave actively, not passively, which was the same strength that Tutorials courses had.  Only a few equivalent experiences were to be had in the traditional Political Science department of San Jose State, such as courses I took under my former Tutorials tutor (the late) Fanny Rinn, who was a founding faculty member of both Tutorials and the Women's Studies Programs at San Jose State University.  In New College, I uniformly was able to study with such wonderful, caring teachers, and to learn from them in seminars focused on intensive study of single topics: The Spanish Civil War, taught by Patricia Fagen; the British Colonial Experience in Africa, taught by former colonial official John Roche; sociological/psychological topics taught by Bob and Cindy Glinner, etc.  The experiences helped me to be able to succeed in graduate level seminars once I graduated from San Jose State and moved on to a Ph.D. program at University of California, Santa Barbara."  Gordon has taught college political science for more than twenty-five years, primarily in small liberal arts colleges where reading the classics and studying in groups of 20 to 30 is the predominant method of instruction.  Preparation for success in higher education, one of the many purposes of San Jose State University and the CSUC system, clearly was assisted for Gordon by his experiences in the New College, as much as his teaching was assisted by having experienced the seminar style of undergraduate education in both Tutorials and New College.

Moreover, in New College both of the Bowens wish to emphasize that they were treated not as objects, students in a separated world distant from our teachers.  Like the experiment at Monte Capanno, New College was a genuine community: Bob and Cindy Glinner frequently threw parties for us all; psychologist Robin Brooks entertained generously at his home, where encounter groups challenged some of us to get to know ourselves, and each other, more clearly; and students would exchange views on topics of public concern and community governance in the New College building wholly outside the meetings of scheduled classes.  Both the Classics-oriented Tutorials Program and the less structured New College of San Jose State were valuable to our educations; as was the Experiment at Monte Capanno.

Tutorials and New College were valuable experiments.  These were not, of course, the only places on the San Jose State campus where barriers were being broken down in the late 1960s, and genuine community was also created by other innovative professors.  Notably, many of us (including Gordon) went on to study under Humanities Prof. John Sperling, who employed many of the successful methods he had used in Tutorials and New College (which he co-founded with Mervyn Cadwallader), and other methods, to bridge the walls that too often limit the potential for education to encourage student growth.  Sperling left San Jose State a few years later, and is well known as the founder of the Apollo Group, the for-profit adult education corporation associated with the University of Phoenix.  It is a reflection of some significance that, after the mid-1970s, the further development of effective and innovative alternatives to traditional college education had to occur beyond the San Jose State University campus.



Other Monte Capanno 1970 residents' views on the value of education through Tutorials in Italy:
Sandee Stoltz, writing to the webmasters "[Thinking back in 2000 about Tutorials in Italy in 1970] We were isolated and at the same time 'communal.' Some of the time the dreariness got to us down deep inside.  Our individual fears expressed themselves with contention and disputes over triffles, such as food, wood, money-who had it and who didn't.  We seemed to follow the natural course of an unguided course in survival.  Something I believe [Professor] Zack enjoyed.  But as a result of this course, and at the hand of our 'John and Yoko,' we reaped the greatest benefits that we would have never gotten otherwise.  Zack gave us what other professors could never have given us - the right to be ourselves no matter what!  He put no constrictions on us to become what we wanted to be at that time.  Our true natures came out, naked and raw before each other without condemnation.  It was our own inner turmoils that hurt us.  (This may be true today!)  The beauty of all of this and Monte Capanno is that we didn't know we were so liberated!!! ... We  stepped back in time when we went to live in Perugia.  We found an 'experience' there that is/was unique.  We were not a 'commune' based on a religious belief with a 'prophet' as a leader of the group.  David Zack, for all we thought he lacked and for all we may have distained, pulled off an amazingly great job of taking nearly 30 students - impressionable - and allowing us to be ourselves unconditionally.  I couldn't do that raising my kids!  I had to give them my two cents here and there to 'put them on the right path.'  As a professor, could you take your 30 students into a situation like this?  We lived each day not knowing what the next would bring.  Nothing was ever the same... We were given an opportunity so wonderful and so simple, like no other.  I just didn't think we were going to be 'thrown into the water to sink or swim' the way David Zack did!  I didn't know we were on the 'Survivor' TV show, did you?   Zack helped us prepare our way to the future - I found bliss...  I would not trade these experiences for anything."


Other Tutorials' students letters about Tutorials and/or New College: non-residents at Monte Capanno's views
Adrienne DeAngelis to Monte Capanno 1970, March 2, 2001:  "Here's the message I got back from Scott Rice, who kindly wrote to Hobart Burns about our programs.  It does seem that there is almost no memory  of these experiments, which is a shame, whether or not one wants to discuss the idea of their success and failures.

"L & G--why not swing your net rather more broadly and and start collecting information and memories of the two programs before it is finally too late?  The two European trips could be the centerpieces.   This would make a most interesting book, and, based as it would be on  interviews with the participants, would be a fine last exercise in the spirit of participatory education.  N.B.--I recall now that I actually went to Eugene Bernardini and asked him if he'd be interested in being our Italian prof.  He showed a bit of interest, but when Zack showed up EB bowed out (there was, as I  recall, some discussion of having them as co-directors).  Also, Perugia wasn't 'selected' to be the program's location; that's where the farmhouse,  oops, villa was that Zack knew about.  And on a much more trival matter: I  don't remember anyone at the time characterizing Zack as 'charmismatic.'  He  had contacts with the Beats in S.F. and, I do believe, with Fluxus in  NJ/NY. Well, I guess if you have what appear to be impeccable oldtime countercultural credentials your coolness automatically makes you charismatic."
 

        Adrienne
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